你真的了解元旦吗? Do you really know ‘yuan dan’?

2016-12-29 15:09 千龙网

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2016年即将离我们而去,人们正满怀希望地迎接2017年的到来。今天我们把阳历新年的第一天称为元旦,但你真的了解元旦吗?历史上的元旦都是哪一天?最先庆祝元旦的又是哪个国家?……

2016 is leaving us soon and forever, and people are preparing for the arrival of 2017 with hope and expectation. Today we call the first day of a year on Gregorian calendar “yuan dan” (New Year). But do you really know “yuan dan”? Which day did it fall in history? Which country first celebrates the day?...

中国的元旦

Yuan dan in China

中国的元旦,据传说起于三皇五帝之一的颛顼,距今已有3000多年的历史。“元旦”一词最早出现于《晋书》。中国最早称农历正月初一为“元旦”,元是“初”、“始”的意思,旦指“日子”,元旦合称即是“初始的日子”,也就是一年的第一天。

It is said that the New Year’s Day (“yuan dan” in Chinese) originated from the period of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors over 3,000 years ago in China. The word “yuan dan” first appeared in the Book of Jin. In early days Chinese referred to the 1st day of the 1st lunar month as “yuan dan”. “Yuan” means “the beginning”, while “dan” means “day”, and thus “yuan dan” means “the beginning day”, namely the 1st day of a year.

历代的元旦月并不一致。夏朝的夏历以孟喜月(元月)为正月,商朝的殷历以腊月(十二月)为正月,周朝的周历以冬月(十一月)为正月。秦始皇统一中国后,又以阳春月(十月)为正月,即十月初一为元旦。从汉武帝起,才规定孟喜月(元月)为正月,把孟喜月的第一天(正月初一)称为元旦,一直沿用到清朝末年。

However, the New Year’s Day fell in different months of the year in Chinese history. It fell in the 1st lunar month in the Xia Dynasty (c.2029-1559 BC), the 12th lunar month in the Shang Dynasty (c.1559-1046 BC), and the 11th lunar month in the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1046-256 BC). After the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC) unified China, the 10th lunar month was observed as the first month of the year and thus the New Year’s Day fell on the 1st day of the 10th lunar month. During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD), the 1st day of the 1st lunar month became the New Year’s Day again and the tradition lasted until the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).

中华民国建立后,为了“行夏正,所以顺农时,从西历,所以便统计”,民国元年决定使用公历,并规定阳历(公历)1月1日为“新年”,但并不叫“元旦”。1914年,传统农历新年岁首被官方正式易名为“春节”,“元旦”、“新年”名称被安置在公历的1月1日这一天。新中国成立后,也采用了世界通用的公元纪年法,并将公历1月1日正式定为“元旦”,农历正月初一改为“春节”。

After the Republic of China (1912-1949) was founded, it adopted Gregorian calendar while still keeping the lunar calendar to facilitate farming. But at that time, January 1st according to the solar calendar was called “New Year’s Day” rather than “yuan dan”. In 1914, traditional Chinese New Year was officially named “Spring Festival”, and “yuan dan” and “New Year’s Day” were used to refer to the first day of the year on the Gregorian calendar.

最早和最晚进入元旦的国家

First and last countries that celebrate New Year

由于地球的自转形成时间差,世界上国家并不是同时来新年的。大洋洲的岛国汤加是世界上最先庆祝元旦的国家。最后进入元旦的是西萨摩亚群岛,我国则是排在第12位进入新年的国家。

Due to time differences caused by earth rotation, all the countries and regions around the world don’t celebrate the New Year at the same time. Tonga is the first country that celebrates the New Year, and Samoa is the last country that enters the New Year, while China is the 12th country that observes the New Year.

元旦异俗

Unique New Year traditions

在除旧迎新的日子里,世界各国的人们都以各具特色的方式迎接着新年的到来。

People around the world celebrate the New Year with different customs.

印度从每年10月31日起为新年共5天,第四天为元旦。虽然在大多数国家元旦被认为是一个喜庆的节日,但印度有的地区,从元旦早上,家家户户哭声不断,他们认为岁月易逝、人生苦短,因此用哭来迎新年。有些地区的人们以禁食一天一夜来迎接新的一年,由元旦凌晨开始直到午夜为止。

The Indian New Year is observed for five days from October 31 every year, and the 4th day is called “New Year’s Day”. Though New Year’s Day is often regarded as a joyful festival, in some areas of India, people welcome the day with tears for in their opinion time flies and life is short so they cry on that day. In other parts of India, people would fast from the small hours to midnight on New Year’s Day.

巴拉圭人将新年之前的五天定为冷餐日,大家都不举炊。等到元旦到来的那一天,教堂的钟声鸣响,才升火做饭,饱餐一顿,互祝新年快乐。据说当年巴拉圭被外族统治,国人奋起反抗,战争持续一年,粮食不济,处于弹尽粮绝的危险关头。之后,援军及时赶到,在元旦那天才有粮食补充。为了纪念昔日的艰辛,便有冷食和元旦举炊的习俗,以志不忘。

In Paraguay, people eat only cold food for five days before the New Year and it is not until the New Year’s Day that people begin to cook with fire. It is said that during a war Paraguayans fought against invaders which lasted for a year, the soldiers were short of food and at the vital moment the reinforcements came in time and food supply arrived on New Year’s Day. To remember the history, the tradition of eating cold food before New Year in Paraguay has been passed down.

丹麦人在元旦前夜,家家户户都要将平时打碎的杯盘碎片收集起来,待夜深人静时偷偷地送至朋友家的门前。元旦的早晨,如果谁家门前堆放的碎片越多,则说明他家的朋友越多,新年一定很幸运。

On New Year's Eve, the Danish people collect broken dishes and cups, and send them to their friends’ house doors secretly. On New Year's morning, the more fragments one finds in front of his or her house, the luckier he or she will be in the New Year.

在比利时乡村,元旦这天一起床,人们首先赶到牛、马、猪、羊、狗、猫等动物身旁,亲热地祝它们新年快乐,并喂它们平时吃不到的好食物。

In the countryside of Belgium, people often first visit their animals like cows, horses, pigs, sheep, dogs and cats, wish them a happy new year and feed them on New Year’s Morning.

责任编辑:Lu Qing(QN0045)

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