除了北京,首都居然还有这么多名字!You may not know these names of Beijing

2016-12-12 16:22

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老北京是个有着三千多年历史的古都,三千多年来的改朝换代也成就了北京诸多的称谓,算起来大概有二十来个。一九四九年第一届中国人民政治协商会议上通过的《中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领》中决定:北平为首都并改名为北京。今儿咱们就倒着数一数这老北京的称谓。

As a historical city of over 3,000 years, Beijing has got altogether about 20 names as dynasties rose and fell. It was during the 1st Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) that its name was changed from Peiping to Beijing and the city was made the capital of the People’s Republic of China. Let’s trace the former names of Beijing to understand its history better.

京兆

民国二年(1913)废顺天府,翌年置京兆,隶属中央,范围包括今天北京大部分地区。民国十七年(1928)京兆被废,改名北平。

Jingzhao

Shuntianfu, the office of Shuntian Prefecture in the Ming and Qing dynasties, was abolished in 1913, the second year of the Republic of China (1911-1949). In 1914, the city which was comprised of most areas of today’s Beijing adopted the name Jingzhao, which was later replaced by Peiping in 1928.

宛平

这个称呼不太准确,一般说这是老北京人对北京的泛称。明清时期的宛平是县治区,大概的方位是在今天北京的西南部分,包括石景山、门头沟、海淀、丰台以及大兴的一部分,也就是今天宛平城周边地区;

Wanping

It is not exact to call Beijing Wanping, but Wanping is actually a general work used by old Beijingers to refer to the city. Wanping used to be a county in the Ming and Qing dynasties, which contained today’s Shijingshan, Mentougou, Haidian, Fengtai and part of Daxing in the southwest of Beijing, i.e. today’s Wanping and its surrounding area.

京师

明永乐十八年(1420)明成祖迁都北京,改称京师,一直到了清代。“京师”一说有两种:一说是出自《诗经》 里:“京师之野,于时处处”,后世人因此便称国都为京师了。另一说是周文王周武王在陕西凤翔建都,凤翔的山名“京”,凤翔的水名“师”,因此将京师做为了国都的代称。北京成了明成祖的国都自然也就被称为“京师”了;

Jingshi

In 1420, Emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) relocated the capital to Beijing and changed the place name to Jingshi, which was still used in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). There were two different versions about the origin of Jingshi. Some said it originated from a verse line in Shijing, The Classic of Poetry, and thus people call a country’s capital Jingshi. Others believed that the Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC-256 BC) first established its capital in Fengxiang, Shaanxi, and the mountain in Fengxiang was called “Jing” and the water “Shi”, so Jingshi later became a synonym for capital.

北京

明永乐元年(1430)永乐皇帝成祖朱棣,把他做燕王时的封地北平府改做顺天府,建立北京城,准备迁都于此。从这个时候起定名北京,距今已有596年的历史了 。

Beijing

Zhu Di, the Yongle Emperor changed Beipingfu to Shuntianfu in 1430 and built Beijing city as the new capital. Since then, the city has had a history of 596 years.

北平

一三六八年朱元璋称帝,建立了明王朝,史称明洪武元年。为了将平定北方的功绩载入史册,便把原来的元大都改为了北平;

Peiping

Zhu Yuanzhang established the Ming Dynasty in 1368. To commemorate the feat of recapturing the north, Dadu of the Yuan Dynasty was changed to Peiping (Northern Peace).

汗八里

元朝的时候蒙古人定都北京后,称大都“汗八里”,在蒙古语里“汗八里”是“汗城”的意思,也就是可汗住的地方。马可波罗的书中就把元大都北京写做“汗八里”。

Khanbaliq

After the Mongols selected Beijing as the capital of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), the city was called “Khanbaliq”. In Mongol, it means “City of the Khan”. Marco Polo also referred to Dadu of the Yuan as “Khanbaliq” in his book.

中都

宋宣和六年(1125年),金人南侵,占领宋的燕山府。金贞元元年(1153年)金人迁都燕京,改称中都,所治均在今天北京西南一带。

Zhongdu

The Jurchens occupied Yanshanfu of the Song Dynasty (960-1279) in 1125, and in 1153 they moved their capital to Yanjing and named it Zhongdu, which included today’s southwest of Beijing,. 

南京

辽太宗会同元年(938年),将原来的幽州升为幽都府,建号南京,又称燕京,作为辽的陪都。当时辽的首都在上京(今内蒙古巴林左旗南部)。

Nanjing

In 938 AD, the former Youzhou was upgraded to Youdufu during Emperor Taizong of the Liao Dynasty (916-1125). The city as the second capital of the Liao was named Nanjing and also called Yanjing. The capital of Liao was in Shangjing then (south of Baarin Left Banner in today’s Inner Mongolia).

此外,北京的别名还有蓟城、燕都、涿郡等。

Besides, Beijing was also called Jicheng, Yandu, Zhuojun and so forth.

责任编辑:Lu Qing(QN0045)