[Nov 6, 2014] Life of old barber 剃头匠的平凡人生

2015-11-13 09:19 english.qianlong.com

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"Shaving the head and then the face, trimming the nose hair, and then wiping all over it with a towel..." The simple, slow but careful steps give rise to a scene of a barber in service of his patrons coming up in one of the two non-fiction films starred by Jing Kui, a century-old barber in reality, who has witnessed those old stories of Beijing's transformation with times and contributed his career to the city's development.

He is Jing Kui, an old barber and a mere nobody compared to the shining stars on screen, who has been living in one of the compact courtyard dwellings in one of the thousands of "Hutongs" in Beijing and completed his ordinary and peaceful life journey as a traditional craftsmanship inheritor at the age of 101 on the morning of Nov 4, 2014.  

11月4日早晨,在北京八宝山,历经一个世纪,走过101载春秋的北京“剃头匠”靖奎在亲人和徒弟的护送下,正式与这个世界告别。“老北京手艺人的活化石”,走完传奇而平凡的一生。

The "living fossil of new Beijing" bade farewells to the world

As a film remark goes, "He is a 'living fossil' of the new Beijing and the soul and body of the old one." Apprenticed to a barber as a teenager and retiring at the age of 95, Jing Kui cut hair for countless people including the celebrities from the Peking Opera masters --- Shang Xiaoyun, Fu Tanying, etc. to the common people and neighbors living in Hutongs over his eight decades of career. "Making no difference between the rich and the poor, he  used the same skill to all."

“新北京的活化石,老北京的灵与肉”,这是一则影评对靖奎的评价。这位刚刚离世的百岁“剃头匠”,被称为“理发泰斗”“老北京手艺人的活化石”。

"In his eighty-four years of barbering career, his razors went through all sorts of styles from the big braids of the leftovers of the Qing Dynasty, ‘half brush’, flat top, back head, part, bold, etc.; dozens of types of currencies like the copper cashes, silver dollars, gold yuan notes, customs gold vouchers, RMB, etc. went through his hands," people said. "However, what he never changed was  his dedication to his work and his chillaxed altitude towards life."  

八十多年来,他手中的剃刀服务过的有尚小云、谭富英等大家,也有“爆肚张”第三代传人张耀兴等老北京的代表,更多的是胡同里的普通百姓。然而,“无论贫富贵贱,手法不变,劲道不变。”

在景山西街旁的高卧胡同,靖奎曾带着那套黑色手提包里的剃头工具,推着三轮车,无数次在胡同里留下背影。然而时至今日再走过这里,只看到胡同边有一摊烧纸留下的斑驳痕迹。

靖奎老先生的家地方不大,屋里的陈设也比较朴素。日历、报纸、床边的蓝色氧气罐,还有最引人注目的一墙照片:有靖奎出演的纪录片《靖大爷和老主顾》和电影《剃头匠》的大大的海报,还有与他人的合影。照片里的他多是手握着剃刀,眼神专注。而今,屋中间一幅遗像,略显消瘦、面容慈祥,取代了这位老者的存在。

2014年10月31日上午,靖奎在北京中医医院去世,享年101岁。女儿们说,靖奎走得很平静,“十分钟前还好好的呢,没受罪。” 靖奎十几岁时从顺义到北京城里学习剃头手艺, 直到95岁左右才因身体状况“退休”,一生顾客无数。

有人说,“在老人80年左右的理发生涯中,手中剃刀下的发式经历了清朝遗老遗少的大辫子、半截刷子、平头、背头、分头、光头,到现在各式各样的头;他手中数过铜钱、银圆、金圆券、关金券、人民币,不下十几种钞票。”然而,在身边人看来,一直不变的是靖奎的敬业、淡泊。

The respected master in the eyes of his apprentices

After Jing's death, his last apprentice Zhang Delu in Beijing and the one in Henan Province --- Jiang Ziwen came back to visit his dwelling. 

靖奎离世后,在北京的“关门弟子”张德禄和河南濮阳的徒弟蒋自文都赶来师傅家中。大约在三年前,两人先后拜师,蒋自文特地从河南往来北京,前后有一年时间。

In his forties, Jiang owns three barbershops and has been working as a barber for more than 30 years. He has just opened his third barber’s in Beijing and told us that "What I do is to serve the middle to elder-aged men with the traditional skill."

今年40多岁的张德禄梳着马尾辫,做了20多年理发生意的他刚刚在北京开了第三家店。蒋自文做理发已有三十余年,是位戴着眼镜的斯文中年人,在河南开着一家叫“一头热刮脸铺”的店,用他的话说,“专门用传统手艺服务中老年男性”。

"I have visited the dear master many times and he refused my request to learn from him as always. Perhaps, he thought he could not pass things on to me due to his aged condition. But finally he changed his mind...it may be my genuine faith that moved him or his own desire to pass on the skill," Jiang said. 

“我当时多次来师傅家拜师,可能是担心自己年纪大了,教不了我什么,师傅一直没有答应。最终应该是我的真诚打动了他,而且他也想把这门技艺传承下去吧。现在我自己的一家店里还能做传统手艺,由我做。不过师傅今年给我的那套老行头可舍不得用,已经珍藏起来。”

Now the two apprentices both provide free services to the elderly. "This is a part of what we learn from our dear master. All those over the age of 60 coming to us will have haircut for free. For those having difficulty in getting about, we will go to their homes to do haircuts," Jiang said 

张德禄所说的是靖奎今年9月送给他的一套剃头工具,有磨刀布、剃刀等。靖奎生前经常骑着车带着工具“走街串巷”,定期为行动不便的老主顾们上门剃头。
而如今,尽管相隔千里,两位徒弟的店都对老年人免费。两人说,这样做和师傅的教导分不开。“60岁以上的老年人都免费。如果有腿脚不方便的,还可以上门服务。”蒋自文说。

"He always told to us not to work overloaded to make money. He cared little about it,". Having cut hair for many celebrities and become famed at a young age, the nonagenarian charged little from his customers. In fact, the traditional skill requires more time and energy. But "slow work yields fine products. It provides people with a comfortable feeling that the modern technique can not."

说起师傅,两人都感叹师傅的敬业、淡泊。“师傅总是劝我不要太劳累了,对金钱这样的身外之物他看得很淡。”尽管年轻时给不少名人服务过,颇有名气,但靖奎给人理发只收取很少的费用,一般只是象征性的几块钱。而这种传统的剃头技法,实际上很费时费力,但正所谓“慢工出细活”,能给习惯了传统方式的老顾客带来现代化手段没有的舒服感受。

"Our dear master was dedicated to his work. He has been cutting hair for over 80 years. Its our responsibility to carry forward his skill and workmanship," Zhang said. 

“师傅一生都讲求职业道德,能80年做一件事情,特别敬业。我们一定要把他的技艺传承下去,发扬光大。”张德禄说,但更值得永存的是师傅的敬业与淡泊,随遇而安、与世无争。

Remember the barber master via his two films 

"Eight decades of career as a barber as well as the changing times and people coming and going have been burned on the razors of the elder." as a film remark goes.

The first film about Jing Kui is a documentary shot by director Shi Runjiu when Jing was 87 and the film was awarded the “Academic Award of Chinese TV Documentary”.

At the age of 93, Jing starred and portrayed himself in film The Barber, which won multiple prizes in several film fests. It’s unimaginable for a 93 year-old to recite and finish all the lines of 50 scenes. But he made it with his professionalism and dedication. We respect him for his work ethic. Now we can only see his spirit and outlook through the movies.

This is Jing Kui, an obscure craftsman leading an ordinary life in one of the thousands of Beijing Hutongs who was a witness to the changing times and also a part of it.    

2002年,导演施润玖为87岁的靖奎拍摄了纪录片《靖大爷和他的老主顾们》,并获“中国电视纪录片学术奖”。

在片中,尽管已是耄耋之年,从秋至冬,靖奎定期上门为老主顾们理发,而靖奎比他们中多数人年纪还大。相处多年,主顾们都老了,有些人是最后一次享受靖奎的服务,而不变的是剃头、刮脸、铰鼻毛、毛巾擦脸的步骤,一丝不苟中充满对人生的豁达。

有影评写道,“八十载的剃头匠生涯,他的剃刀抚过时代变迁、人来人往。老主顾们的最后岁月,他悉心料理着每一撮发须,剃刀上折射着年华的烙印。”

93岁时,靖奎还本色出演了由哈斯朝鲁执导的电影《剃头匠》。该片在第14届法国维苏尔电影节获得最佳故事影片奖、评审团特别奖,还获得了第37届印度果阿国际电影节金孔雀奖、上海电影节新闻传媒大奖等多个奖项。

据了解,哈斯朝鲁和编剧冉平曾花了几个月的时间采访靖奎先生,围绕着他的生活状态写剧本。对一个93岁的老人来说, 背50场的台词几乎是不可能的任务,但靖奎依然凭着敬业精神完成了。正是这样,如今人们才依然能从影片中看到这位传奇老人的音容笑貌。

这就是靖奎——一个老北京,住在胡同大杂院里,过着北京城内最普通也最平淡的生活,一辈子安安心心地做手艺人,见证着历史,也融入了历史,真实,动人。

责任编辑:Li Qiao(QN0024)